Sunday, 31 May 2015

India's participation in United nations peacekeeping forces


united nations peacekeeping missions are for helping nations in maintaining  peace in their respective countries .many countries are part of united nations peace keeping mission and India is one among them .India has been actively participating in UN peace keeping missions  from a long time and even India 's work and dedication in UN peace keeping mission have been appreciated . India as  being the  prime contributor to UN in its peacekeeping operations   has suffered the highest number of casualties among participating countries in UN peace keeping missions , accounting for 157 of 3,263 lives lost, as on August 31, 2014.
The death toll of Indian soldiers during  UN peace keeping missions proved that India has been significantly contributing in UN peacekeeping efforts.the Total troops from the time India began participating in UN peace keeping missions in 1950 has reached to 1,80,000 troops which  is the largest number from any country contributed in UN mission.Nigeria comes next as  having suffered 142 casualties during UN peace keeping mission.
UN statistics reveal that the 3,000 odd casualties are largely due to accidents, illness and what it calls ‘malicious acts’, which broadly cove
rs death in different kinds of conflict situations ranging from war to civil unrest.
The UN peace keeping force comprises of large number of defence personnel along with police and even civilians.It is a noble cause and a great initiative by the united nations in uniting different nations of the world.
The peacekeeping operations started in 1948, and the death toll crossed the 1000 mark in 1993. It took fewer years for the the figure to cross 2000, which occurred in 2004. The figure crossed 3000 in 2012. These figures have to be placed in the context of the widening scale and complexity of UN operations over the years.



The UN had deployed 1,04,184 uniformed personnel from 128 countries in its peacekeeping operations as of September 30, 2014, of whom 89,111 were troops. India was  the third largest among all the countries participated in UN operation which  consisted of 8,108 personnel as on August 31, 2014, of which 7,053 were troops. Only Bangladesh and Pakistan  accounted for a larger UN contribution, with 8,778 and and 8,283 personnel respectively.
The UN Operation in the Congo accounted for the largest number of Indian causalities – 39, followed by UN Emergency Force operations, in which the death toll was 27. In Congo, two infantry brigades made up of 11,354 troops, 467 officers and 401 junior commissioned officers took part in the operations. Six Canberra bombers of the Indian Air Force had also formed part of the force. Captain G. S. Salaria, who died in Katanga, Southern Congo, was posthumously awarded the Param Vir Chakra.
Referring to the changing environment in which the peacekeeping operations are being carried out, Lt. Gen (retired) Satish Nambiar observed in an article commissioned by External Publicity Division of Ministry of External Affairs earlier this year, “UN peacekeepers are increasingly being sent to regions where civil-war type situations prevail; where there are no agreements, or if there are, these are rather tenuous, or broken without compunction; where the consent or cooperation of the belligerent parties cannot be relied upon; where constitutional authority does not exist in many cases, or if it does, has limited authority.”


according to him “India’s spontaneous and unreserved participation in UN peacekeeping operations over the years has been a clear demonstration of the country’s commitment to the objectives set out in the UN Charter. Not in terms of rhetoric and symbolism, but in real and practical terms, even to the extent of accepting casualties to personnel (about 150 fatalities to date). This commitment has been acknowledged by the international community, successive Secretaries General and the United Nations Secretariat,” .

Saturday, 30 May 2015

Who saves nation more Police or Army?

Army  and police are two strong pillars of our nation security .Both have their respective areas of jurisdiction and specified set of powers but their ultimate aim is maintaining  nation security .we cannot compare them because both of their  roles are crucial in maintaining security and one cannot be sacrificed or subsidised in sake for the  other. So these two departments have to work and even have worked together in many situations for maintaining internal peace and security of the nation.
Indian police department is regarded  as the state affair and its role is to maintain  internal peace and security of the state on the other hand   the Indian  army comes under  the centre  and its  role is  to guard the forward areas of the nation.both of these forces work areas are completely different from each other but Sometimes during the emergencies or situation when the police is not able to control and maintain internal peace in the state then the  army is called upon for help. This is when the problem arises as the peacetime activities of an armed force have a bearing on its wartime capabilities and its relations with the civil society.although it had been stated in the  government policy  to use the defence forces as sparingly as possible in the issues related to  internal security  yet  the Indian army  has been continuously being  engaged in  Jammu and Kashmir as well as in disturbed areas of north eastern states  internal  operations .The reason behind  the involvement of Indian army in these states is because jammu and Kashmir and disturbed areas of north Indian sates comes under the armed forces special power act,1958  .as per The armed forces special powers act ,1958  the  armed forces were given certain specified special powers over the disturbed areas for maintaining internal  peace  in the state  .In case of Jammu and Kashmir which is  under this act for a long time now it    has   been experiencing  continuous revolts  from the  people  for lifting off the AFSPA ,1958 . This clearly shows that excessive army involvement create distress in the nation. As rightly said by the former army chief Ved Prakash Malik “Excessive and continuous involvement of the Army for internal security is not good, neither for the Army nor for the nation. Most of the states have neglected their armed police.’’
Internal security is the responsibility of the Home ministry and the police force and the  armed forces are for forward frontiers and external security of the nation.
Here it’s not the army or the police or the people that has to be blamed,  it’s the responsibility of the government to administer its defence forces in proper way without creating distress in the nation.
As rightly stated by strategic affairs expert Jasjeet Singh that   “There is an increasing trend to rely on the army for internal security”, “We have got into the habit that the moment there is the slightest disturbance the administrator picks up the phone and calls for the army.”Defence analyst Gurmeet Kanwal stated that “such operations undoubtedly stretch the army’s budget and affect its modernisation programme; they also interfere with the training of the armed forces for conventional warfare.
It’s the responsibility of the government to reduce this threat . However, concerns had been raised after the Malegaon blasts case where a serving army officer has been charge sheeted.
even though we cant raise doubt on whole army because of one such event .still it is a great matter of concern and has to look upon by the authorities and should find the core of the cause.

this also makes us think  that whether  army’s involvement in internal security duties make it vulnerable to politicisation?according to Singh thinks that Malegaon is an aberration but “what is aberration today in twenty years will be regular.”He suggests reforming the training and recruitment of police so it can tackle internal security challenges on its own.Police being a state subject under the Indian constitution, personnel are recruited locally and therefore are more sensitive to local sentiments.  This makes the police more conducive to handling internal security duties provided it has the capacity.Jammu and Kashmir Chief Minister Omar Abdullah favours the strategy of letting the local police maintain law and order in the state.which comes under the armed forces special power act,1958.as per The armed forces special powers act ,1958  the  armed forces were given  certain specified special powers over the disturbed areas for maintaing internal  peace  in the state  .In case of Jammu and Kashmir which is  under this act for a long time now and   therefore  armed forces are working along with the state police   has   been experiencing  continuous revolts  from the  people  for lifting off the AFSPA ,1958 . This clearly shows that excessive army involvement created distress in the nation. As rightly said by former army chief Ved Prakash Malik “Excessive and continuous involvement of the Army for internal security is not good, neither for the Army nor for the nation. Most of the states have neglected their armed police.''Internal security is the responsibility of the Home ministry and the police force and armed forces are for forward frontiers and external security of the nation.Therefore they should work in their respective areas which will be good for the people as well as for the police and army.even if army get involved with the state administration for internal affairs and it created chaos then  it’s not the army or the police or the people that has to be blamed,  then its  the responsibility of the  government .
As per  Jasjeet Singh one of the experts     “There is an increasing trend to rely on the army for internal security”, “We have got into the habit that the moment there is the slightest disturbance the administrator picks up the phone and calls for the army.”Defence analyst Gurmeet Kanwal stated that “such operations undoubtedly stretch the army’s budget and affect its modernisation programme; they also interfere with the training of the armed forces for conventional warfare.It’s the responsibility of the government to reduce this threat . However, concerns had been raised after the Malegaon blasts case where a serving army officer has been charge sheeted.even though we can't raise doubt on the whole army because of one such event .still it is a great matter of concern and has to look upon by the authorities and should find the core of the cause.
the main cause of the problem is that government rely on army for internal security issues too.so instead of relying on army the government should take drastic changes  in training and recruitment programmes of the police .so that the police will be self reliant in maintaining internal securing and then army involvement wont be needed.police is a local authority and therefore they are much more connected with the people as compared to the army and therefore making then self reliant will help in avoiding chaos.

India’s aerial defensive system has always played a significant role in every war India has fought. Therefore it’s significant for India to develop and modify its aerial defensive system to attain aerial supremacy. This is one of the reasons due to which India like many other countries desires to develop its own aircraft industry to become strong and efficient in its aerial defensive system. To get a whole idea about Indian military combat aircraft development we have to first look into India’s current position in the aircraft development industry.

The success or failure in a war depends largely on its aerial combat efficiency and this is where the significance of Fighter aircrafts comes into the picture as they are crucial for gaining aerial supremacy in the battle field. The newly invented airplane entered   World War I as an observer of enemy activity and gathered importance by making it clear that its use is inevitable to all the belligerents in the opening days of the conflict. After this every conflict has shown its share of aerial defensive system Therefore countries are trying to modify and develop their defense fighter aircrafts with the latest advancement in technology .even India is not lagging behind and is working on its  indigenous production of fighter aircrafts and other aerial defense weapons and technology   .In the subsequent years With the Steady Improvements in Computers, aerial Defensive Systems Have Become Increasingly Efficient ,More and more countries are trying to achieve aerial defensive system superiority. Even India did its part to improve it aerial defensive system in which India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru played a crucial role in the development of India’s aeronautical industry. He was adamant  that India should  develop its own aircraft’s to attain aerial supremacy .this is where the Hindustan aeronautics ltd. (HAL) came into picture as  Hindustan aeronautics ltd. (HAL), the only aircraft industry in the country has began as a private company in 1940 as Hindustan Aircraft Ltd. After post independence the British downsized HAL by retrenching 80% of its experienced
workforce. Due to which at the time of independence of India HAL had to start again virtually from scratch with a stint of left over expertise. HAL was still able to pool in its wartime experience in assembling, overhauling, and refurbishing (upgrade in today’s parlance) a large number of Liberator bombers for the fledgling Indian Air Force even  Despite of  the shortage in the expertise .This was followed by its first attempt at aircraft design, which was the basic trainer (HT-2) for the Indian Air force.  The HT-2 entered IAF service in the late 1950s and went on to train IAF pilots for more than three decades. A few numbers were also exported. By the mid-1950s India initiated the move to design and manufacture a combat aircraft within the country. The move was certainly audacious, given the expertise available within the country at that time. Then in 1958 The Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) was formed for the technological development of Indian military under the administrative control of the Ministry of Defense. DRDO has also assisted Hindustan Aeronautics with its programmes. Since its formation in 1958, the DRDO has achieved some spectacular successes like the missile development programme, but also has many failures to its name. Programmes like the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) and the Main Battle Tank (MBT) Arjun have suffered inordinate delays and time and cost overruns. However, to its credit, the DRDO worked under extremely restrictive technology denial regimes and with a rather low indigenous technology base.
India’ has been attempting from a long time  and even have encountered many   faults in  design of   development and manufacture  of the aircraft.
The first was the HF-24 programme, which was initiated in the 1950s and was prematurely closed after just a decade and a half of operations; while the second is the LCA programmed, which is, even after three decades of development, yet to fructify. 
HF – 24 “Marut”
In the mid fifties the IAF wanted a multi-role combat aircraft and therefore the HF-24 programme was initiated.HF -24 was a national programme and therefore the leadership decided that it should be a indigenous project by HAL.BUT at that time hal does not have expertise and technology to undertake this task in 1955 .so Jawaharlal Nehru took a wise decision of taking foreign assistance for the project and this was a farsighted and visionary approach. Still it was considered as a strategically brave decision as was executed inspite of enormous challenges.
YET the execution of HF-24 was brilliant but has certain faults in its follow ups and subsequent management and therefore had the quickest burial for any national programme anywhere in the world ever had. The entire infrastructure had to be built up from grassroots. In this scenario, HAL did the wisest act. It inducted Dr Kurt Tank, the German designer, to head the design team for the HF-24, while addressing the infrastructure development on a high priority. While the prototypes flew, the project was scrapped in 1953 due to shortage of funds. Kurt Tank and his close design team moved to India. He became the director of MIT (Madras Institute of Technology) where he taught aeronautics. President Abdul Kalam was his student. He moved to Bangalore with his team when the HF-24 design task was entrusted to him.
By all standards the HF-24 was a state of the art design, and was equal to the best in its contemporary era. It was hampered by the non-availability of the right power plant. As a result, the IAF and HAL chose to power it with two Gnat engines – Orpheus 703.  Though underpowered, the HF-24 could touch 600 knots at low level, a quality that was its strength in the 1971 war -as the HF-24 veterans would vouch for. Its normal ferry speed was the fastest in IAF history, 0.9 Mach at 40,000 ft.The development programme of HF-24 was first established on a full-scale glider model. 83 developmental sorties were flown on this model. This perhaps, was the last aircraft on which a glider model was used in the world.  The actual prototype flew in 1961, just four years from 1957 when the design work commenced. This was surely a great achievement when compared with   the challenges that existed in India’s technological environment and testing tools that were available in that era. The first two pre-production models were handed over to the IAF in 1964 to the AATU for operational evaluation. The first squadron was formed in 1967 (No 10 Sqn – Daggers), just 10 years after the commencement of the design. While the HF-24 acquitted itself well in the 1971 war (in ground attack role), its envisaged air defense role was non-existent due to its underpowered power plants. Despite huge efforts the Indian government could not get the right engines. The government made a huge blunder when it rejected the offer of Bristol for a joint development of the engine that required less than Rs 5 Crore investment at that time. The finance wizards in the government rejected it on grounds of huge expense. This was a hugely lost opportunity. Rs 5 crores even in those times was not a big sum considering the fact that such a joint venture would have catapulted India to come in ranks of Engine designers and manufacturers. Four decades later India is still struggling to make an aero engine, the Kaveri engine programme has consumed thousands of crores and is nowhere near airworthiness.Dr Kurt Tank left India in 1967. But the HF-24 experience had strengthened HAL immensely. In 1967 this was certainly a very strong position. Logically the country, the user and the industry should have persisted with this successful design to bring about necessary improvements through successive derivatives of the same aircraft.
But what happened subsequently was a huge national tragedy. The Air Force lost interest due to the aircraft’s persistent problems of underpowered engines and phased out the fleet by 1984, a mere 17 years after the first induction. What was even more alarming was the fact that HAL design department lost interest and its experienced work force began to move away to better prospects. In a nutshell the HF-24 became a massively wasted opportunity for the country. The final nail in its coffin was delivered when the IAF inducted the Jaguar as its premier strike fleet, and HAL was happy to produce it under licence. The decade of the 1970s could be called as the lost decade. By the time the LCA project came up in 1985, the country began from scratch all over again.




Light Combat Aircraft
The LCA (Light Combat Aircraft) requirement emerged in the late Seventies when the IAF, concerned with the high accident rate of the Gnat/Ajeet aircraft, asked HAL to develop a light, inexpensive aircraft as a quick replacement. Later, the replacement requirement included early series MiG-21s as well. A feasibility study was carried out by an integrated team headed by the then Director of NAL, Dr Valluri, under the auspices of HAL.
Upgrade Programmers
For nearly three decades since the early 1950s, integration of weapons and upgrade of systems have been handled largely by AATU, and later ASTE of the Air Force. The first major large upgrade programmed was done on the Jaguar fleet. This was the development of the digital nav attack system for the Jaguar fleet. The system called DARIN (Digital Attack, Ranging, and Inertial Navigation) was developed in the early 1980s and went on to be fitted in the entire fleet. The system was developed with SAGEM, France as the technology partner. An umbrella organization called IIO (Inertial Integration Organization) was created with active participation of HAL and ASTE. The entire programmed was controlled by the IAF. The programmed was approved in 1981and the DARIN system was operational by 1986. It brought an order of magnitude change in the weapon accuracies of the IAF. This experience proved very useful when the IAF entrusted HAL with the task of developing the next version of DARIN II based on ring laser gyro system.

Jaguar Upgrades
Ever since its induction in 1979, the Jaguar aircraft has continued to be the preferred vehicle for series of major modifications. The first upgrade began with over wing missile modification. Magic I air-to-air missile was integrated as an over wing missile in 1982. The entire upgrade programmed was done by ASTE and HAL with the assistance of British Aerospace industries. An Electronic Warfare adaptation was done in 1985. This was followed by the development of the maritime attack aircraft version with the Agave radar and Sea-eagle missile. The Agave was subsequently replaced with Israeli radar. A series of upgrades have followed; LGB and Designator pod, autopilot, refueling probe on the trainer, avionics and glass cockpit, and finally the re-engining project.
 
MiG-21 Bison
Concerned at the delay in the LCA programmed, the IAF embarked on upgrading an optimal number of 125 MiG-21 Bis aircraft in late 1990s. The upgraded aircraft, called Bison, was fitted with a new Russian multi-mode radar, a HUD (head-up display), and a digital inertial nave attack system. The development phase was a huge challenge as it involved integrating equipment and systems from Russia, France and Israel. Co-coordinating with three countries was a nightmare. Once development was completed series pro­duction was entrusted to HAL. The IAF accomplished this programmed successfully and the new Bisons acquitted themselves well by jolting the overconfident USAF in the joint exercise in 2005.

MiG-27 Upgrade
Based on the Bison experience HAL was now confident of upgrading the MiG-27 aircraft, which it had produced earlier under license. DRDO’s experience and expertise from LCA and Su-30 projects ensured that the entire upgrade programmed, unlike the Bison, was done in India. HAL, DARE (Defense Avionics Research Laboratory – a DRDO lab) and ASTE managed the entire upgrade process, including the mission computer development. This was a good indigenous upgrade programmed. The upgraded MiG-27 was equipped with a HUD, modern nav attack system, self-protection suite, Multi Function Displays, and advanced electro optical targeting system.

MiG-29 & Mirage 2000 Upgrades
Life extension and upgrade of these two fleets are being done by the OEMs in their facilities.HAL’s gain will be limited to series modification at its facilities using mod kits provided by the OEMs.




Conclusion
Development of aircraft  upgradation  and procurement has become a critical need for all major air forces in the world for  gaining  defense supremacy .comparatively  up gradation of aircraft is comparatively cost efficient then development of new aircraft .so from economical point of view countries prefer to update their aircrafts then develop a new one.  Upgrade strategy provides a very cost-effective solution due to exponential improvements in sensors, systems and weapons. Besides, upgrade strategy provides a good opportunity for industries to hone their design skills and also contribute to developing a large pool of highly skilled technical manpower in the country.

Nevertheless, major powers will continue to develop new systems and aircraft in order to address their strategic autonomy and security. India’s fighter aircraft and engine development programmes have been hampered by discontinuity and compartmentalized approach. Even though India has succeeded in many of its projects for the development and upgradation of its aerial combat industry. Even India has diversified its upgradation options for its aerial defense which has helped India in cost efficiency and increased success rate in its upgradation of its projects. This is the prime factor for India being lacking behind in its defensive system development and upgradation which is now slowly being resolved .The next main problem which India now has to resolve for attaining self reliance in its defensive system is by   policies reorientation for indigenization of defense weapons and technology.

Friday, 29 May 2015

THE ARMED FORCES (SPECIAL POWERS) ACT, 1958

Armed forces ( Assam and Manipur ) special powers  ordinance  came into force when wide spread violence spread in the north eastern states of India and the state administration was unable  to control internal disturbance in the state. Because of that armed forces (Assam and Manipur) special power ordinance was promulgated by the then president Dr. Rajendra Prasad on 22ND may 1958 .It was later was replaced by Armed Forces (Assam and Manipur) special Powers Act, 1958 on 11 September 1958.according to which armed forces had been granted some special powers in the disturbed areas of state of Assam and union territory of Manipur to maintain state internal peace. As per the armed forces special power act( AFSPA) ,1958 the governor of Assam and the chief commissioner of Manipur  were given  the powers by the AFSPA,1958    to declare whole or any part of Assam or the union territory of  Manipur to be a disturbed area  according to the situation prevailing  in the state. On such a declaration in the official gazette, any commissioned officer, warrant officer, non-commissioned officer or any other person of equivalent rank of the armed forces may exercise the powers conferred to them by the act in the disturbed area.

LIST OF AMENDING ACTS
1. The State of Mizoram Act, 1986 (34 of 1986).

2. The State of Arunachal Pradesh Act, 1986.
3. The Armed Forces (Assam and Manipur) Special Powers (Amendment) Act, 1972.
4. The Armed Forces Special Powers (Extension to Union Territory of        Tripura) Act, 1970.
5. The Repealing and Amending Act, 1960.


THE ARMED FORCES (SPECIAL POWERS) ACT, 1958 is an Act to enable certain special powers to be conferred upon members of the armed forces in disturbed areas in the State of [Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura]. Armed Forces have been given this power so that they could work in harmony with the state administration when they are deployed in disturbed area in maintaining internal peace in the state .during such situations if any person got arrested and was taken into custody under this Act then the army authority duty is bound to handover them to the officer-in-charge of the of the nearest police station with the least possible delay, along with a report of the circumstances causing the arrest. According  to the  act  no prosecution, suit or other legal proceeding shall be instituted to the persons acting under act except with the previous sanction of the Central Government, against any person in respect of anything done or purported to be done in exercise of the powers conferred by this Act.
Tripura was also among those north eastern states which are under the armed forces special power act, 1958 for last 18 years to curb insurgency .recently the Tripura government on Wednesday decides to remove the armed forces power act (AFSPA) from the state .Tripura  Chief Minister Manik Sarkar, who is also the Home Minister of the state after  reviewing  the situation of the disturbed areas of the state  has taken the  decision of removing the armed forces special power act from the state  in the meeting of the council of ministers . As they have also discussed the issue with the state police and other security forces working in the state and as per suggested by the security forces in the state that there is no requirement of the Act now as the insurgency problem has largely been contained. Chief Minister manic sarkar has declared that they would soon issue gazette notification in this regard.






Wednesday, 27 May 2015

Winner of Param Vir Chakra: Naik Jadu Nath Singh

Literally, Param Vir Chakra means 'Wheel (or Cross) of the Ultimate Brave'. In Sanskrit, 'Param means Ultimate, 'Vir means Brave and 'Chakra means Wheel. Therefore India’s highest gallantry award, Param Vir Chakra is awarded to the bravest of the brave soldiers who have shown extreme valor and supreme sacrifice in the battle field .The majority of the recipients of PVC were awarded posthumously and one among them is Naik Jadu Nath Singh. Naik jadu nath Singh was the first infantry soldier who was awarded with param vir chakra on Feb.  6th  1948 for his heroic  bravery and supreme sacrifice in the battle field  .He  was born on 21ST  nov 1916 at shahjahanpur,uttar Pradesh .Naik  jadunath  does not  had  a military family background  and neither he  had a plan to join army ,he was interested in  wrestling and wanted to carry on with it further but soon he realized that army is the  right place for him and he got enrolled in the Indian army . naik jadu nath singh was enrolled in the 1 rajput ( now 4 guards 1 rajput ) on 21 nov  1941 of   Indian army at  that time it was the British Indian army . Naik jadu nath Singh was posted in 1 Rajput unit when he was killed in action on 6 Feb.  1948 aged 31 during the indo-Pakistan war of 1947. Naik Jadunath Singh was in command of a forward post in Kashmir during the 1947-48 operation there. The enemy attacked early one Feb morning. Jadunath and his men beat back the attack but four of them were wounded. The second attack came shortly afterwards. The nine men in the picket were heavily outnumbered and soon all of them were bleeding from various wounds but Jadunath spurred them on with words of encouragement. When his gunner was hit he took over the gun himself and the accuracy of his fire power and his daring forced the enemy to withdraw. When the third attack came, Jadunath rushed out firing from his sten gun. The enemy was taken back in surprise and fled in disorder. However two bullets hit Jadunath, one in the head and other in the chest. He died of his wounds but he had saved his picket from being overrun by the enemy. Naik jadu nath singh fought 3 attacks of the Pakistan army on the post and sacrificed his life but saved his post from the enemy. Jadunath Singh was awarded the Param Vir Chakra posthumously.naik jadu nath singh had given best of his service in serving the nation from 1941-1947.







Tuesday, 26 May 2015

FIRST PARAM VIR CHAKRA WINNER : SOM NATH SHARMA




India's highest gallantry award, param vir chakra (PVC) is honoured to those brave soldiers who have fought courageously and have shown extraordinary bravery and supreme sacrifice in the battle field. One such brave soldier is major somnath Sharma, the first recipient of param vir chakra. On 3rd Nov, 1947 Major Somnath Sharma was awarded with param vir chakra to Honor his supreme sacrifice for the nation. He was born on January 31, 1923 in dadh, kangra himachal Pradesh in a well known military family .His father was major general amar nath Sharma who was also a military officer and was retired as the director of medical services (army) as were his brothers Lt. General Surindar Nath Sharma retired as engineer in chief and general vishwa nath Sharma retired as chief of army staff (1988-1990) and his sister major Kamla Tewari also a medical doctor. major somnath Sharma did his schooling from Sherwood college , nanital and later he joined the prince of Wales royal military college in dehradun and then later on he  joined the royal military academy .then major somnath Sharma was commissioned into the 8th  battalion, 19th   Hyderabad regiment ,later 4th battalion ,kumaon regiment of the Indian army then British Indian army on  22  Feb 1942 .major somnath Sharma  life from his childhood till his last breath revolved around army which  could be one of the reason for  major  somnath  Sharma passion for army and for serving the country . he never feared from his death and always look forward in serving the country. Major Somnath was a born warrior, as inspite of his injury he fought the war courageously till his last breath. Major Som nath Sharma was only  aged 24 when he was killed in action   while evicting Pakistani infiltrators and raiders from Srinagar airport during the indo-pak war of 1947-48 in Kashmir on 3rd November 1947 at badgam, India. On 22 October 1947, Pakistan launched the tribal invasion of Jammu & Kashmir. The intention was to grab the Kashmir valley by force. As the State became a part of the Union on October 26th, her protection became the responsibility of India. To save the State from a tribal invasion, which was approaching the valley at a very fast pace, India dispatched troops to Srinagar. The first batch of Indian troops reached just in time on October 27Th morning to stop the enemy on the outskirts of Srinagar.
The D Company of 4 Kumaon, led by Major Somnath Sharma, was airlifted to Srinagar on October 31st. When his company was asked to move to Srinagar, Major Sharma's arm was in plaster. He had suffered a fracture on the hockey ground and was advised rest till the plaster was removed. But he insisted on being with his company at this crucial hour and was allowed to go. Meanwhile, the main thrust of the tribal invasion of Srinagar had been blunted by the 1 Sikh at Patan. The enemy now resorted to guerrilla tactics to sneak into the valley. But the induction of more troops into Srinagar enables the Army to take care of the surrounding areas better. On November 3rd, a strong fighting patrol compromising 3 companies was dispatched to reconnoitre the Bagdam area to look for raiders approaching Srinagar from the northern direction. By 0930 hrs the troops had established a firm base at Bagdam.
As no enemy was seen during patrolling, two companies moved back to Srinagar by 1400 hrs. D Coy led by Major Sharma which had taken up position south of Bagdam was, however, asked to stay on in the area till 1500 hours. At 1435 hours, D Coy was subjected to firing from some houses of Bagdam village. The Coy did not return fire for fear of killing innocent people of the village. While Major Sharma was discussing this threat with the Bde. Cdr., a large force of the enemy, about 700 strong, appeared from a depression to the west of his position. It attacked with coy with small arms, mortars and heavy automatics. The accurate and devastating fire of the enemy inflicted heavy casualties on D Coy. Major Somnath Sharma understood the gravity of the situation and the imminent threat to both Srinagar town and the airfield was looming large before his eyes. He rushed across the open ground to his sections, exposing himself to enemy fire. He also laid out panels to guide I

AF aircraft to their targets in the face of enemy fire. The company held on for six hours against heavy odds.

When heavy casualties adversely affected the firing power of the company, Major Sharma, with his right hand in plaster, took upon himself the task of filling the magazines and issuing them to men, operating light machine guns. While he was busy fighting the enemy, a mortar shell exploded on the ammunition near him. His last message to Brigade HQ, received a few moments before he was killed was, "The enemy are only 50 yards from us. We are heavily outnumbered. We are under devastating fire. I shall not withdraw an inch but will fight to our last man and our last round."  Major Somnath Sharma was a proficient officer, he had fought in post independence British Indian army in World War II and in Indian army during the Indo-pak war of 1947 where he has shown extremely extraordinary bravery and have created history by becoming the PVC recipient. In the battle of Bagdam, Major Sharma, one JCO and 20 other ranks were killed. But their sacrifices did not go in vain. He and his men stemmed the tide of the enemy advance on Srinagar and the airfield for some very crucial hours. He has set an example of courage and qualities, seldom equaled in the history of the Indian Army. Somnath Sharma had given best of his services from 1942 to 1947 in serving the nation, His father Major General Amarnath Sharma received India's first and highest war-time gallantry medal, Param Vir Chakra, on behalf of his brave son. Major Somnath Sharma was also the elder brother of the son in law  of savitri khanolkar, who designed the PVC.

Sunday, 24 May 2015

10 indian military most advanced weapons


Indian military, the fourth largest military in the world,undoubtedly has the best soldiers in the world but it  is also the keeper of the some of the most advanced weapons in the world. It’s admirable that with a defence budget of just  $46 billion per year, India has developed its  weapon technologies for its defence operations  that are at par and even superior to that of the US and Russia.

Indian military, the fourth largest military in the world,which has undoubtedly best soldiers in the world but it is also the keeper of the some of the most advanced  weapons on the planet. It’s appreciable  that with a defence budget of a mere $46 billion per year India has developed its military  training and weapon technologies that are at par and even superior to that of the US  and Russia. India has not only become  the largest importer of weapons on the planet but it’ll also become the fourth highest military spender by 2020.

some of the  weapons possessed by the Indian Army, Navy and Air Force that are among the best in the world.

10) PINAKA Rocket System ::
The Pinaka MBRLS (multiple barrel rocket launch system) is produced in India by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) for the Indian Army. Combat proven in the cold and high altitude regions during the Kargil conflict in 1999, Pinaka can fire up to 12 missiles/rockets in 44 seconds with a reload time as short as 4 minutes.

9) T-90S BhiSHMA ::
Bhishma is the Indian name for the Russian-made T-90s tanks. 
An amalgam of T-80U and T-72B,the T-90 Shave superior fire control system and mobility.
These tanks can be used for over three decades with little or no mid-life improvement. The tanks are fitted with the most advanced jamming systems, laser warning receivers, day and night sighting system and 125mm 2A46M smooth bore gun with thermal capabilities. A Bhishma tank, manned by a crew of three, weighs 48,000 kilos and can cross water obstacles as deep as 5 meters and carry 1600 liters of fuel (diesel) under its virtually impenetrable armor.  Seven hundred of these were purchased from Russia, and once another 347 (to be built in India) join in, India will have the largest force of modernised tanks inSouth Asia.

8) INS VIKRAMADITYA ::
By far the biggest and the most expensive aircraft carrier in the Indian Navy,
this 45,000-kilo sea monster can carry up to 24 MiG-29K fighters and 6 ASW/AEW helicopters.
INS Vikramaditya is fitted with sensor suites that keep it from being tracked by airborne radar systems. It was bought from Russia on 20 January 2004 at price of $2.35 billion, and on 14 June 2014, Prime Minister Narendra Modi formally inducted INS Vikramaditya into the Indian Navy. Over 70 percent of the ship has been refurbished and its life expectancy is over 40 years.

7) NAG MISSILE AND NAMICA (NAG MISSILE CARRIER) ::
Developed at a cost of 3 billion rupees, NAG is a “fire-and-forget” anti-tank missile
 developed in India by the DRDO. Often reckoned as world’s only anti-tank missile which has a complete fiberglass structure, NAG weighs 42 kg, and can engage targets at ranges 4–5 km at a flight speed of 230 metres per second using infrared imaging system. NAMICA is the NAG missile carrier which is capable of carrying 12 missiles with 8 of them in ready-to-fire mode. NAMICA’s amphibious capabilities allow it to conquer almost any water body.



6) PHALCON AWACS ::
AWACS stands for Airborne Early Warning and Control System used to detect aircraft, ships and vehicles at long ranges. The Indian Air Force has one of the most advanced AWACS in the world. Three in active service.

5) PAD/ AAD BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENCE (BMD) SYSTEM ::
Sensing ballistic missile threat from Pakistan and China, India launched the
BMD Defence system. A ballistic missile is a shot-range missile guided during very brief periods of flight, and can fall almost anywhere since its flight is governed by gravity. BMD system can take down any ballistic missile launched from 5,000 kilometres away. BMD consists of 2 interceptor missiles, namely the Prithvi Air Defence (PAD) missile for high altitude interception, and the Advanced Air Defence (AAD) Missile for lower altitude interception. PAD can take down 300 to 2,000 km (190 to 1,240 mi) class of ballistic missiles at a speed of Mach 5. India is the fourth country in the world to successfully deploy ballistic missile defence system. If put to use at the same time, PAD and ADD can achieve up to 99.8 percent take-down accuracy.

4) INS CHAKRA (Nuclear-Powered Submarine) ::
Christened as INS Chakra, the real name of this submarine is
  Nerpa (Russian-made). Chakra is the only Indian ‘nuclear war head’-carrying submarine which can remain underwater for as long as humans want it to. Other conventional submarines have to surface as frequently as almost every day. Chakra has 36 torpedoes and Klub anti-ship missiles, possesses almost zero noise levels, and can accommodate 80 personnel. India invested over $900 million in the development of Chakra in return of which Russia leased it to Indian Navy for 10 years. US, Russia, UK, France and China are the only other nations with nuclear-powered submarine.

3) INS Visakhapatnam (Destroyer) (Project 15B) ::
On 20th April, the Indian Navy launched its latest and by far the 
most powerful and advanced stealth destroyer ship called the INS Visakhapatnam. Once christened as an Indian Naval
Ship in July 2018, INS Visakhapatnam will be the most advanced Indian destroyer warship to sail the battle waters. The 163-meter-long and 7,300-tonne-heavy devourer will have eight supersonic BrahMos anti-ship missiles, 32 Barak-8 Long Range Surface to Air Missiles, Multi Function Surveillance Threat Alert Radar System and twin tube torpedo and rocket launchers. Apart from this, it will also be the only Indian warship with ‘Total Atmosphere Control System’ which will enable the crew onboard to function without any life support system in regions of nuclear, chemical or biological fall out.

2) Sukhoi SU-30MKI ::
The SU-30MKI sits at the pinnacle of Indian military’s air superiority which, 
without this fighter jet, depends on the aged 4th-gen fighters. Simply put,a single plane is equivalent
to 2 MiG-29 and 2 Jaguar combined. Costing Rs 358 Crore a unit, the Sukhoi Su-30MKI is a super-maneuverable twinjet air superiority fighter developed by India’s Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). Developed from the SU-30MK, the ‘I’ here stands for India after it was modified to fit Indian war needs by French, Israeli and Indian avionics in collaboration with an aim to create the ultimate Su-30 variant for India.  With 314 aircraft's on order, India is the largest Su-30 operator in the world.

1) BRAHMOS MISSILE ::
The world’s fastest cruise missile in operation, 
Brahmos travels at speeds of Mach 2.8 to 3.0. With the inclusion of its air-launched variant (expected in 2017), India will be the only country with supersonic cruise missiles in their army, navy, and air force. Compared to other missiles of the same category, BRAHMOS has 3 times more velocity, 3 times more flight range, 4 times more seeker range and 9 times more kinetic range. The current production rate is said to be 100 missiles per year. Also, the missile guarantees pin-point accuracy with hypersonic speed throughout the flight. The whole Brahmos project is expected to cost US$13 billion.

Saturday, 23 May 2015

THE KA-226T MULTI-COMBAT HELICOPTER

 The KA-226T is a light weight , twin engine,multipurpose helicopter.It is offered by Russian helicopters for military  and civilian missions.The military version of  KA-226T is designed for hard -to-reach upland terrains and in extreme hot and cold climates.

The Ka-226T is produced by Kumertau Aviation Production Enterprise ,it is  a part of Russian Helicopters. It is currently in service with the Russian Air Force. KA-226T  performs surveillance, reconnaissance, search and rescue (SAR), targeting, and transportation of cargo and troops.

The KA-226T Approval of acquisition  was granted  by the Indian Ministry of Defence (MoD) in May 2015 to replace the ageing Chetak (Aerospatiale Alouette III) and Cheetah (Aerospatiale SA-315B) helicopters of the Indian Army Aviation Corps (AAC) and the Indian Air Force (IAF), respectively. A expected  joint venture between Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) and Russian Helicopters is under pipeline  for  the licence-build 200 Ka-226T helicopters for the IAF and the AAC.

The KA-226T ,multi-mission helicopter  Design and features:
An upgraded design of the proven Ka-26 helicopter, the Ka-226T is fitted with a high-visibility nose, a new cabin design and a new rotor system. Its fuselage integrates a four-leg non-retractable landing gear.

The helicopter also features a new transmission system and Kamov coaxial rotor system, including three upper rotor blades and a set of three lower rotor blades. The new rotor system avoids the need for a tail rotor, which ensures landings and take-offs from small sites.

The rotorcraft integrates a new avionics suite with multifunctional displays (MFDs), automatic control system, navigation system and radar. It can be fitted with hoist system, cargo hook, searchlight and additional external fuel tank. It can also be configured with a medical module for search and rescue missions. The module can be quickly installed or removed by just two people.

Fuselage of the Ka-226T has a length of 8.6m, whilst its width is 3.2 and it has a height of 4.1m. The diameter of its main rotor is 13.2m.


Cabin and Cargo Capacities ::
The cabin measures 2.35m-long, 1.34m-wide and 1.4m-high. It offers a volume of 5.4m3 and is fitted with mooring equipment for securing cargo and folding seats for accommodating troops.

A total of 1,200kg of cargo can be transported by the helicopter inside the cabin and it can carry 1,500kg load on external sling. The maximum take-off weight with under-slung load is 3,800kg.


Engines and performance ::
Power for the Ka-226T comes from two Turbomeca Arrius 2G1 engines. Each engine develops a take-off power of 705hp and contingency power of 580hp. The rotorcraft is equipped with engine fire protection system and fire warning system.

The helicopter can fly at a maximum speed of 250km/h and cruise speed of 220km/h. It has a maximum flight range of 600km with main fuel tanks. The operational and hover (OGE) ceilings of the helicopter are 5,700m and 4,100m respectively and the maximum rate of climb is 10m
/s.